In background no one comes close to the Dark Angels. The oldest and the best.
In game terms, second edition Space Wolves - 24 Wolf Guard with Assault Cannons...
Next in line would be third edition Black Templars - free movement, crazy vows, close combat choppiness made them the ultimate Rhino Rush army. 3rd ed. Blood Angels would come in close behind for most the same reason - Death Company, free movement and every model gets furious charge for free.
For shear military might i would go with Black templars, mainly due to the fact they seem to ignore the 1000 marines per chapter rule and that no one really nows how many marines they have because they are out on "crusades".
In terms of toughness i would go space wolves ,they are rock hard even for marines .
But you could go through the fluff for every popular chapter and find reasons for why A is better/stronger/faster/tougher etc than B.
Sons of Antaeus
A chapter created during the Cursed 21st Founding, records of the Sons of Antaeus are few. In these, the reporters marvel at the Space Marines bearing grey and black livery, the Marines apparently larger and hardier than even the other superhumans of the Adeptus Astartes. Only sighted once in M41, appearing out of nowhere to aid The Subjugators who were under attack by the Eldar, then vanishing without a trace.
In the battle, Eldar forces attacked the Sons of Antaeus believing them the weaker foe, however the Marines were far more resistant to the eldar's firepower and stood their ground. As soon as the Eldar were defeated and the Subjugators were victorious the Sons of Antaeus vanished as mysteriously as they had arrived.
Grey Knights fluff wise.. not bound by Codex Astartes, each Marine is the equal of a standard chapters librarians. A single squad was held in reserve should the 100 marines of the original Exorcists chapter failed in their testing on a Demon world. There is no known count of Grey Knights but there are rumored to be around 3000 of them roaming the galaxy watching for signs of demonic infestation.
They are also the only non-primarch or Daemon to defeat a Primarch as Captain Aurellian banished the Deamon-Primarch Angron back to the warp during the first Battle for Armageddon. All together 100 Grey Knight Terminators bested Angron, his 12 Bloodthirster body guard and numerouns other minor deamons accompanying them with around a dozen Grey Knights remaining.
Game wise the true down fall of Grey Knights is a lack of ranged anti tank weaponry. They seriously need the option of a missle launcher or lascannon or; the psycannon needs to be updated with something that can help it against vehicles. Otherwise the force is great... WS5 Str6 w/ Storm bolters that count as any additional CCW in HtH. They are vicous close combat monsters when they choose to be.
yellow hard to paint ?!? no way white needs like 5 coats so any chapter with white but non springs to mind=] but DA are the only loyalist legion to have come close to Horus' victory record so they're ace but space wolves and Templars come a close second=]
Smallest Legion, one of if not the smallest Chapter, still around despite Istvaan V, nearly caught old Fabius Bile, blacksmiths every one, survive their planet going to pieces periodically, but to top it all off...unlike other Chapters...they actually care about the humans they defend. It takes real strength to be humble to any degree. I have to love Chapter Regent Tu'Shan decking that uppity git of a Marine who wanted to bombard the refugee camp; little dose of humble pie there, served up cold.
The Blood Angels, and their Second Founding successors (with the exception of the Flesh Tearers...) strike me as the finest Astartes. They're noble to a fault, are passionate in their faith, have talent in the arts, and are genetically related to an angel that happens to be the Jesus figure in the game. And red power armour is cool.
Ultramarines! They held the Imperium together following the Heresy and 1/3 of all chapters use their gene-seed. They also laid the groundwork for all marine chapters with the Codex Astartes. They are the epitome, the standard, of what a space marine is!
If not, then surely Grey Knights. They are realy super-marines.
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