Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: Beyond the Pale
You really asked two different questions. I am assuming in this answer you are talking of the Judeo-Christian concept of "God".
One is about "Evil", the other is about "Bad Things".
Many "bad things" that happen to people are not in and of themselves Evil (Evil requires some form of malicious will behind it), accidents, illness, disease, natural disasters, etc are parts of the natural order. They happen to all creatures "great and small" with no ill will or order to them. Often they are needed parts of the natural cycle to maintain a healthy order and balance to life as we know it. The best answer I can think of to the question of "why bad things happen to good people" (a flawed question which in and of itself assumes some moral superiority or protection that should be given to "good" people...the real question is "why do bad things happen") is that the natural laws that were set in motion by "God" apply equally across all creation and care not whether you are "good", "bad", "ambivalent", "animal", "mineral", etc.
The second question of "Evil" has far more to do with free will. If a "God" creator has given humankind free will to do as they please, why would he then turn around and deny the results of the actions taken under that free will? Given that he has 1) provided a blueprint for humans to follow to be "Good" and avoid "Evil", 2) considers this material universe a temporary home for the human soul, and 3) has promised rewards and/or punishment for choosing to be "Good" or "Evil" that exist outside this material universe.
You may not agree with his conclusions or his theology, but if this is a question you truly want to explore the answers to, a good place to start is http://www.amazon.com/Problem-Pain-C-S-Lewis/dp/0060652969. Like I said you may or may not agree with his conclusions, but he does treat the question in a thoughtful way as opposed to snappy, cynical internet witticisms.